Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology

 Friday, 1/6/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications
Co-Sponsor: West Coast Poverty Center

Author Meets Critic

From High School to College: Gender, Immigrant Generation, and Race-Ethnicity

Charles Hirschman, Department of Sociology, UW
Mark Long, Evans School, UW

Today, over 75 percent of high school seniors aspire to graduate from college. However, only one-third of Americans hold a bachelor’s degree, and college graduation rates vary significantly by race/ethnicity and parental socioeconomic status. If most young adults aspire to obtain a college degree, why are these disparities so great? In From High School to College, Charles Hirschman analyzes the period between leaving high school and completing college for nearly 10,000 public and private school students across the Pacific Northwest.

Charles Hirschman is Boeing International Professor in the Department of Sociology and the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs and Governance at the University of Washington. He received his BA from Miami University (Ohio) in 1965 and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1972.

Mark Long is Professor and Associate Dean for Research in the Evans School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Washington. He received his PhD in Economics from the University of Michigan in 2002.


Friday, 1/13/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

Population Research Discovery Seminar

Falling Behind: The Black-White Wealth Gap in Life Course Perspective

Alexandra (Sasha) Killewald, Department of Sociology, Harvard University

The black-white wealth gap in the United States is vast and increases with age. To better understand this disparity, we adopt a life course perspective, examining the accumulation of wealth across individuals’ lives and how wealth accumulation changes with age. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we show that whites accumulate wealth more rapidly than blacks throughout their 20s, 30s, and 40s, and the gap grows dramatically in the 30s. Unlike whites, whose annual wealth accumulation grows over the life course, blacks’ annual wealth accumulation remains low throughout early and middle adulthood. Individual traits, especially income and education, explain about 2/3 of the race gap in total wealth accumulation between ages 20 and 50. When we account for the tighter income-accumulation association as individuals age, the role of income differences increases still more. Net of individual traits, black-white differences in social origins explain only 2 percent of the race gap in wealth accumulated between ages 20 and 50. Blacks are cumulatively disadvantaged in wealth accumulation across the life course in two ways: (1) because their median annual wealth accumulation is always lower than whites’, with each year they fall farther behind in amassed wealth; (2) because the black-white accumulation gap grows with age, blacks lose ground at an increasing rate each year.

Alexandra (Sasha) Killewald is Professor of Sociology, as well as a faculty member in the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. She received her Ph.D. in Public Policy and Sociology from the University of Michigan in 2011. Prior to her appointment at Harvard she was a researcher at Mathematica Policy Research. Her research takes a demographic approach to the study of social stratification.

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Killewald


Friday, 1/20/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

Population Research Discovery Seminar

Coupling Minimum Wage Hikes with Public Investments to Make Work Pay and Reduce Poverty

Heather Hill, Evans School, UW

Minimum wage laws emerged from the Progressive Era as a policy approach to protecting workers and families from destitution and hardship. Modern minimum wage proponents echo these arguments, but opponents counter with evidence of the policy’s modest to null poverty-reducing effects. We describe two specific reasons why the anti-poverty effects of the minimum wage may be dampened: First, evidence suggests that reductions in employment or hours associated with the minimum wage may hamper the policy’s poverty-reducing effects. Second, the authors’ simulations show that it is the combination of increased wages and public assistance that raise family income above the poverty line, but benefit cliffs and high marginal tax rates hinder that mobility. Addressing these issues could substantially increase the anti-poverty effects of local, state, and federal minimum wage laws. We propose an increase in the Federal minimum wage paired with changes to the benefit schedules of income support programs, and an expansion of tax credits to employers who hire disadvantaged workers, as a promising approach to making work pay and reducing poverty.

Heather Hill is an Associate Professor at the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Policy and Governance at the University of Washington and a faculty affiliate of CSDE. She has a Ph.D. in Human Development and Social Policy from Northwestern University (2007) and a Master’s degree in Public Policy from the University of Michigan (1999). Hill’s research examines how public and workplace policies influence family economic circumstances and child well-being in low-income families. Currently, Hill is a co-investigator on the Minimum Wage Study at the University of Washington, and the lead investigator for a longitudinal qualitative study of low-income families in Seattle during the implementation of the city minimum wage ordinance.


Friday, 1/27/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

Population Research Discovery Seminar

Research Funding and Subsequent Outcomes of Underrepresented Doctoral Students in STEM Fields

Benjamin Cerf, NWFSRDC, US Census

Foreign born students comprise a large share of doctoral candidates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), and those who remain in the US labor market upon graduation play an important role in promoting economic growth and development in the US. Relative quality of foreign and domestic job offers, as well as the availability of H1B visas, play an important role in a person’s decision to stay in the US; however, another understudied factor may be the availability and type of federally funded research opportunities available to graduate students during their training. In addition to providing financial support and hands-on training, federal research awards help integrate students into networks of scientists. We use unique new data to examine how access to federal research funding, along with the composition of federally funded research teams, is related to the future economic outcomes of native born and foreign born STEM doctoral recipients.

Benjamin Cerf is an economist in the Center for Economic Studies at the U.S. Census Bureau and is also the Administrator of the Northwest Federal Statistical Research Data Center at the University of Washington. His research uses linked administrative and survey data and other big data techniques to investigate experiences of marginalized populations. In particular, Ben’s work focuses on participation in anti-poverty programs like the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); the demographics and labor market experiences of LGBT individuals; and the training and labor market experiences of women and foreign born students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Ben earned his PhD in economics from Simon Fraser University in 2013. He also holds an MA in economics, as well as BAs in Philosophy and Classics, all from the University of Montana.


Friday, 2/3/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

CSDE Fellows Lecture

Do Recent Declines in U.S. Life Expectancy Signal Bad News for Healthy Life Expectancy?

Mark Hayward, Department of Sociology, University of Texas

Mark Hayward, demographer and sociologist specializing in population health, has been invited by CSDE Fellow and Sociology Doctoral student, Michael Esposito, to visit CSDE as part of the Fellow Lecture series. Under this program, currently and recently funded fellows host a senior population scientist whose research is most important to their own work.  The work of this week’s fellow, Michael Esposito, Graduate Student in Sociology, focuses on identifying if/how the ways in which social conditions (e.g., education; incarceration; marital status) operate as health inputs are contingent upon one’s social location (e.g., race, gender, age, and their intersections).  You can read more about his studies here.

Mark Hayward will present his research on healthy life expectancy. Life expectancy for non-Hispanic white (henceforth white) Americans with less than high school education has fallen in recent years—particularly for women – while life expectancy has increased substantially for the college educated population. However, the extent to which the declines/increases in life expectancy translate into healthy life expectancy remains unclear.

Mark Hayward and his team combine data from the Health and Retirement Study and U.S. Vital Statistics, using the Sullivan method, to decompose the change in total life expectancy (TLE) to healthy life expectancy (HLE) and disabled life expectancy (DLE) between 2000 and 2010, specific to gender and education groups. They measured disabled life expectancy using both severe (ADL) and less severe (IADL) disability prevalence. Consistent with previous research, they find a modest downward/stable TLE change in the US is concentrated at the bottom end of the education distribution for whites and at ages prior to age 65. Although there was little change in TLE, substantial gains in DLE and losses in HLE were observed, due to the increased rates of disability (especially ADL disability) before age 70. Among the college educated, TLE increased substantially during the decade, especially among males. HLE also increased over the decade, with much of the increase from declining mortality after age 70. Much of the improvement in HLE from mortality was offset by a rise in IADL disability.

The demographic factors influencing HLE shifted from younger ages to advanced ages with higher levels of educational attainment. The findings show that focusing exclusively on the declines in life expectancy, and external causes of death, obfuscates a more dynamic decline in health among whites with low levels of education and significant improvements in health among highly educated persons.

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Hayward


Friday, 2/10/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

Population Research Discovery Seminar

What Can Biological Data Contribute to Population Research?

Dan Eisenberg, Department of Anthropology, UW

Lisa Jones-Engel, Department of Anthropology, UW

Callie Burt, Department of Sociology, UW

Join us for a panel discussion with CSDE affiliates applying biomarker data to a broad range of questions relating to population health and wellbeing.


Friday, 2/17/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

CSDE Fellows Lecture

Lifespan and Healthspan: Past, Present, Promise

Eileen Crimmins, Davis School of Gerontology, University of Southern California

Eileen Crimmins, demographer and AARP Professor of Gerontology in the Davis School of Gerontology at the University of Southern California, has been invited by CSDE Fellow and Anthropology Doctoral Candidate, Hilary Bethancourt, to visit CSDE as part of the Fellow Lecture series. Under this program, currently and recently funded fellows host a senior population scientist whose research is most important to their own work.  This week’s fellow, Hilary Bethancourt, PhD candidate in Anthropology, addresses diet, chronic disease, and longevity in her work.  You can read more about her studies here.

Eileen Crimmins will discuss delayed aging and mortality. It is likely that increases in life expectancy at older ages will continue but life expectancy at birth is unlikely to reach very high levels unless there is a fundamental change in our ability to delay the aging process. We have yet to experience much compression of morbidity as the age of onset of most health problems has not increased markedly. In recent decades, there have been some reductions in the prevalence of physical disability and dementia. At the same time, the prevalence of disease has increased markedly, in large part due to treatment which extends life for those with disease. Compressing morbidity or increasing the relative healthspan will require “delaying aging” or delaying the physiological change that results in disease and disability. Significant improvement in health and increases in life expectancy in the United States could be achieved with behavioral, life style and policy changes that reduce socioeconomic disparities and allow us to reach the levels of health and life expectancy achieved in peer societies.

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Crimmins


Tuesday, 2/21/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
305 School of Social Work
Co-Sponsor: School of Social Work

Population Research Discovery Seminar

Income Inequality and Health

Ichiro Kawachi, School of Public Health, Harvard University

Inequality in the distribution of wealth and income has grown steadily in American society for the past forty years. It is about as skewed today as it was in 1928. Inequality in the wake of the 2008 recession is widely perceived as unfair, as stifling of economic opportunity, and as a threat to the democratic function. But is it a threat to population health? In this talk, Dr. Ichiro Kawachi will summarize the contested evidence linking income inequality to worse population health. He will argue that income inequality is detrimental to public health on three grounds: a) because high levels of inequality imply that people in the lower parts of the income distribution are poorer than they otherwise would be (the concavity effect), b) because inequality produces a variety of negative spillover effects on society, including the erosion of social cohesion (a pollution effect), and c) because inequality creates frustration and stress for those who are left behind, while the well-off gradually accept these disparities as a normal state of affairs. This seminar will also allow for in-depth discussion of this important dimension of population health with the audience.

Ichiro Kawachi, MB.ChB., Ph.D., is the John L. Loeb and Frances Lehman Loeb Professor of Social Epidemiology, and Chair of the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences at the Harvard School of Public Health. Kawachi received both his medical degree and Ph.D. (in epidemiology) from the University of Otago, New Zealand. He has taught at the Harvard School of Public Health since 1992.


Friday, 3/3/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
120 Communications

Population Research Discovery Seminar

When Sex and Gender Collide: The TransYouth Project

Kristina Olson, Department of Psychology, UW

Announced on our day of birth or even months before, sex (and gender) begin to serve as a central social category, defining our lives in a plethora of ways. While the study of how we come to understand our own gender and the influence gender has on our lives has been central to the study of human psychology for decades, nearly all research to date has focused on people who experience “typical” gender identity (gender identity that aligns with one’s sex). In this talk, I will discuss our recent work exploring gender development and mental health in an increasingly visible group of children—transgender youth—for whom gender and sex diverge. I will discuss how our findings are changing existing understanding of gender as well as some of the broader implications outside the walls of the academy.


Friday, 3/10/17 
12:30-1:30 pm, PST
TBD

Next Population Science Insights

Demography Student Poster Session

Come meet CSDE’s graduate students and learn about their cutting-edge research and latest demographic insights.

Welcome Reception

Come celebrate the start of the quarter with CSDE! Catch up with your colleagues, meet new affiliates, fellows, and trainees, and find out what is new at CSDE. While you’re at it, take a tour of the newly renovated Denny Hall. We’ll be meeting in the Department of Anthropology’s new seminar room. Refreshments provided.

Date: Friday, 10/7/2016
Time: 12:30 – 1:30 PM PST
Location: 313 Denny Hall


Population Research Discovery Seminar

Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Exploring optimism bias in parent predictions about a child’s future health and socioeconomic expectations.

Davene Wright, Department of Pediatrics, UW

Optimism bias, the tendency to overestimate one’s chances of experiencing unlikely positive events relative to one’s peers, is present in parent predictions of their child’s long-term health outcomes, including their child’s risk for overweight or obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities in adulthood. We sought to understand whether parents are more optimistic about their child’s health outcomes relative to education, labor, and other socioeconomic outcomes. Discussion will focus on the potential impact of parent expectations on future child outcomes, including whether overestimation and over placement of child expectations can impact future child well-being.

Dr. Wright received her Bachelor’s in Polymer and Textile Chemistry from the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2004 and completed her Ph.D. in Health Policy with a concentration in Decision Sciences at Harvard University in 2012. Dr. Wright is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington (UW) and an Investigator in the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development at the Seattle Children’s Research Institute. Dr. Wright’s current research agenda aims to promote the adoption of interventions, programs, and strategies to treat and prevent childhood obesity. Her methodological interests include economic evaluations, simulation modeling, and risk communication techniques.

Date: Friday, 10/14/16 
Time: 12:30-1:30 pm, PST
Location: 121 Raitt Hall
Co-Sponsor: Department of Sociology


CSDE Alumni Lecture

“They expect more from you”  Working-Class Transitions to Adulthood

Amy Bailey, Department of Sociology, University of Illinois at Chicago

This project examines an understudied topic at the intersection of life course and social mobility research: the transition to adulthood among working class youth. In an era when family wage jobs that do not require a college degree–jobs like those that many of their parents hold–are disappearing, how do working class adolescents navigate the array of options available to them, and make decisions about what to do once they leave high school? Using data collected from focus groups with young people aged 16-21 living in a cluster of working class neighborhoods in Chicago, I find that these young people universally want to go to college, but lack a clear sense of the actions required to accomplish that goal, or the social and institutional resources to effectively guide them.

Amy Kate Bailey (Department of Sociology, University of Illinois at Chicago) is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research is broadly focused on issues of race and inequality, with an historical line of inquiry that focuses on racial violence, and a body of contemporary work on institutions and inequality. Her work has been published in journals including The American Sociological Review and The American Journal of Sociology. Her 2015 book, Lynched: The Victims of Southern Mob Violence, co-authored with Stew Tolnay, received the 2015 IPUMS-USA Research Award from the Minnesota Population Center.

Date: Friday, 10/21/16 
Time: 12:30-1:30 pm, PST
Location: 121 Raitt Hall
Co-Sponsor: West Coast Poverty Center

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Bailey


Population Research Discovery Seminar

Race, Class and Affirmative Action

Sigal Alon, Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Tel Aviv University

Race, Class and Affirmative Action (The Russell Sage Foundation, 2015) evaluates the ability of class-based affirmative action to promote the social and economic mobility of disadvantaged populations and boost diversity at selective postsecondary institutions, as compared with race-based policy. The book draws from within- and between-country comparisons of several prototypes of affirmative action policy. It uses the United States as a case study of race-based preferences, and Israel as a case study of class-based preferences. For each country the model that has actually been implemented is compared to a simulated scenario of the alternative policy type. The develops new, and more global insights about the potential of race-neutral public policy to promote equality in higher education.

Dr. Alon is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Tel-Aviv University. Her main research interests include social stratification and mobility, with an emphasis on the sociology of education. Her work focuses on unveiling the dynamics and historical processes underlying class, gender, and racial-ethnic inequalities in educational attainment, and the extent to which do admission, retention, affirmative action and financial aid policies in higher education narrow these inequalities. Alon’s perspective is interdisciplinary and comparative, taking into account educational processes and outcomes, institutional arrangements and social structures, psychological biases, as well as demographic and economic trends. Dr. Alon has published in leading journals in sociology, education and economics and her research has been supported by grants from the Spencer Foundation, the American Educational Research Association, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Texas Higher Educational Opportunity Project, and Yad Hanadiv.

Date: Friday, 10/28/16 
Time: 12:30-1:30 pm, PST
Location: 121 Raitt Hall

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Alon


Population Research Discovery Seminar

Rooted or Stuck? The Causes and Consequences of American Mobility Decline

Brad Foster, Department of Sociology, University of Washington

Annual mobility rates in the US have declined by half since 1950, but it’s not clear why. The emerging literature suggests that as-yet inexplicable immobility is indicative of increasing “rootedness” among Americans – a cultural attachment to place that’s both universal and voluntary. I assess this claim using data from the Current Population Survey and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and address two central questions. First, have expectations of mobility declined alongside actual mobility? Second, has the link between mobility expectations and actual mobility outcomes weakened over time? Results suggest that Americans are “stuck” rather than “rooted” in place – increasingly unable to move when they expect to do so. This pattern is consistent with the idea that social and economic shifts in the latter half of the 20th Century left Americans with fewer options for, and a marginalized ability to take advantage of, opportunity elsewhere. Moreover, because the weakening expectation-mobility link is particularly pronounced among African-Americans, mobility decline may exacerbate inequalities in residential mobility processes that are already deeply stratified by race.

Brad is a Ph.D. Candidate in the Sociology Department of UW and a former funded CSDE fellow. His current research projects examine multiple facets of American mobility decline, but his research and teaching interests more broadly include social demography, urban/community sociology, race/ethnicity, inequality, and the role of context.

Date: Friday, 11/04/16 
Time: 12:30-1:30 pm, PST
Location: 121 Raitt Hall


Population Research Discovery Seminar

How Does Big Data Contribute to Improved Demographic Knowledge

Patrick Gerland, Chief of Mortality Section, Population Division, United Nations

Thomas LeGrand, Department of Demography, University of Montreal

Adrian Raftery, Department of Sociology & Department of Statistics, UW

Emilio Zagheni, Department of Sociology & eSciences Institute, UW

Join us for a provocative panel discussion among leading demographers about the opportunities and pitfalls of big data for improving population health knowledge.  

Date: Friday, 11/18/16 
Time: 12:30-1:30 pm, PST
Location: 121 Raitt Hall

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Patrick Gerland
Schedule a meeting with Dr. Tom LeGrand


Next Population Science Insights

Demography students present lightning talks and posters

Come meet CSDE’s Graduate Students and learn about their cutting-edge research and latest demographic insights.  The newest members of UW’s population science community are eager to connect their work across disciplines and to translate their findings for basic and applied research impact.
Full list of presenters, topics, and links to posters

Date: Friday, 12/02/16 
Time: 12:30-1:30 pm, PST
Location: Green A, Research Commons, Allen Library South


CSDE Fellows Lecture – CANCELED

Do Recent Declines in U.S. Life Expectancy Signal Bad News for Healthy Life Expectancy?

Mark Hayward, Department of Sociology, University of Texas

Life expectancy for non-Hispanic white (henceforth white) Americans with less than high school education has fallen in recent years—particularly for women – while life expectancy has increased substantially for the college educated population. However, the extent to which the declines/increases in life expectancy translate into healthy life expectancy remains unclear.

We combine data from the Health and Retirement Study and U.S. Vital Statistics, using the Sullivan method, to decompose the change in total life expectancy (TLE) to healthy life expectancy (HLE) and disabled life expectancy (DLE) between 2000 and 2010, specific to gender and education groups. We measured disabled life expectancy using both severe (ADL) and less severe (IADL) disability prevalence. Consistent with previous research, we find a modest downward/stable TLE change in the US is concentrated at the bottom end of the education distribution for whites and at ages prior to age 65. Although there was little change in TLE, substantial gains in DLE and losses in HLE were observed, due to the increased rates of disability (especially ADL disability) before age 70. Among the college educated, TLE increased substantially during the decade, especially among males. HLE also increased over the decade, with much of the increase from declining mortality after age 70. Much of the improvement in HLE from mortality was offset by a rise in IADL disability.

The demographic factors influencing HLE shifted from younger ages to advanced ages with higher levels of educational attainment. The findings show that focusing exclusively on the declines in life expectancy, and external causes of death, obfuscates a more dynamic decline in health among whites with low levels of education and significant improvements in health among highly educated persons.

 

Date: Friday, 12/09/16 
Time: canceled
Location: canceled

Schedule a meeting with Dr. Hayward